četvrtak, 7. svibnja 2009.

KRATKA HISTORIJA BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE OD ILIRIJE DO DANASNJEG DANA

Prvi stanovnici BiH o kojima znamo bili su ILIRI. To je prastari narod indoevropskog porijekla cije je prisustvo na prostorima BiH potvrdeno jos u 2.mileniju st.e. Oni su naseljavali skoro sav Balkanski poluotok. Vodeca bosanskohercegovacka ilirska plemena bili su Japodi, Dalmati, Dezitijati, Dicioni, Mezeji, Daorsi i dr. O njima su pisali grcki i rimski pisci, koji u svojim natpisima ne propustaju priliku da istaknu njihovu borbenost. Rimsko prisustvo na ovim prostorima imalo je veliki utjecaj na zivot ilirskih starosjedilaca. Taj uticaj nije se odrazio na vjerske tradicije Ilira.
Od 4.vijeka barbarska (divlja) plemena su pocela ugrozavati granice Rimskog Carstva.Mada su tokom 5. i 6. vijeka kroz nasu zemlju prosle nebrojene horde koje su iza sebe ostavljale pustos, katastrofa je uslijedila krajem 6. i pocetkom 7. vijeka kada su se pojavili Avari i Slaveni. Godine 602. presli su Savu i upali na teritoriju nase zemlje.
Prve vijesti o Bosni poticu iz 10. vijeka. Nalazimo ih u djelu bizantskog pisca Konstantina Porfirogeneta "DE ADMINISTRANDO IMPERIO" (Upravljanje drzavom) u kojem se navodi "Horion Bosna" Naziv Bosna je predslavenskog tj. ilirskog porijekla.
*****
Karta - Ilirija, Illyricum, d'Illyric, Bos fena, Bosna
*****
Rimljani su ilirski naziv prilagodili svom izgovoru pa je nastao pojam Bosna. Taj naziv je u ranom srednjem vijeku prilagoden slovenskom izgovoru, pa je tako nastao naziv Bosna. Podrucje danasnje Hercegovine u srednjem vijeku se nazivalo Hum (ponekad i Zahumlje). Naziv Hercegovina poceo se upotrebljavati tek od dolaska Turaka. Po nazivu zemlje (Bosna) dobili su naziv i njeni stanovnici. Za njih se u srednjem vijeku iskljucivo upotrebljavalo ime BOSNJANI.
Sa dosta sigurnosti moze se reci da je do stvaranja Bosanske drzave doslo tokom 9. vijeka. Zbog pomanjkanja izvorne gradje ne zna se mnogo o prvim bosanskim vladarima. Dokumenti dugo ne navode njihova imena, samo se kaze "Ban Bosanski". Prvi put se 1084.godine za jednog od njih kaze da se zove Stjepan. Od brojnih banova koje je Bosna imala tokom nekoliko stoljeca, najpoznatiji je bio ban Kulin koji je vladao od 1180 do 1204.godine. U njegovo doba Bosna je dozivjela veliki razvoj, vladala je sigurnost i pravo blagostanje.
*****
U srednjovjekovnoj Bosni bile su prisutne 3 vjere: bogumilska, katolicka, pravoslavna. Vecina stanovnistva je slijedila bogumilsku vjeru. Iako joj je osnova bila krscanska, zvanicna crkva (katolicka i pravoslavna) proglasile su je krivom vjerom (herezom). Ova vjera se u dokumentima naziva patarenskom, manihejskom i sl, dok je domaci dokumenti u organizacionom smislu nazivaju "Crkva bosanska". Njeni pripadnici su samo sebe nazivali "dobri krscani". Danas se ta vjera u nasem narodu naziva bogumilska, a njeni pripadnici bogumili. Srednjevjekovna bosanska drzava bila je uredena na nacin kako su bile uredene sve onovremenske evropske drzave. Na celu se nalazio vladar koji je u ranijem razdoblju nosio naziv Bana, a potom kralja. Svi su poticali iz domace vladarske porodice Kortomanica, koji su potekli iz srednje Bosne. Kada je 1463. godine sultan Mehmed II ef. Fatih krenuo na Bosnu nije joj bilo spasa.
Kralj Stjepan Tomasevic (1461-1463) groznicavo je trazio od evropskih saveznika ranije obecanu pomoc, ali su ga svi odreda iznevjerili. Na narod se nije mogao osloniti jer vjerski progoni koje je on preduzimao protiv domaceg stanovnistva ostavili su dubokog traga. Dolazi do masovnog prelaza bogumila na Islam, iako se to odvijalo bez prisile. Razlog tome je sto su bogumili bili stoljecima proganjani od evropske inkvizicije i krizarskih vojski kao i mnogi zajednicki elementi koji su bili prisutni u bogumilstvu i Islamu (polumjesec i zvijezda, post, odbojnost prema kipovima i ikonama itd).
*****
Turci su vec u vrijeme osvajanja Bosne (1463.godine) ispoljili veliku vjersku toleranciju. To je bilo u uskoj vezi sa osnovnim nacelima Kur'ana po kojem je nedopustivo nekom silom nametnuti vjerska ubjedenja. Zahvaljuci toleranciji u Bosni se i nadalje nastavio suzivot pripadnika razlicitih vjerskih zajednica. Dok nisu iscezli bogumili i nakon dolaska jevreja na ove prostore, koegzistiralo je cak 5 vjera: bogumilska (domaca), islamska, katolicka, pravoslavna i judejska. Nisu nikada zabiljezeni slucajevi da je dolazilo do razmirica na vjerskoj osnovi. Od konca 17. vijeka bosanski Ejalet (pokrajina) predstavljao je najzapadniju provinciju Osmanskog Carstva. Zbog neuspjeha koje je Osmansko Carstvo imalo u sukobima sa Rusijom koja je bila saveznik Srba, bili su prisiljeni Srbiji ustupiti i teritorije s desne obale Drine, sto je predstavljalo otvoreno negiranje uspjeha Bosnjaka, koji su svojim zivotima desetljecima branili svoju zemlju. Saznanje da ce Bosna zbog sticanja autonomije Srbije, Grcke i Albanije ostati potpuno izolirana i bez komunikacija sa centralnim dijelom Carstva bili su razlozi za borbu protiv reformi centralne vlasti. Nakon duzih priprema u Tuzli je u januaru i februaru 1831. godine odrzano savjetovanje bosanskih i hercegovackih ajana i kapetana. Donesene su odluke:
- da se od Porte zatrazi opoziv svih privilegija Knezevini Srbiji - da se sprijeci progon muslimanskog stanovnistva - da se obustavi regrutovanje nove vojske - da se Bosni omoguci autonomija na celu sa domacim covjekom - da Bosna Porti daje godisnji porez u iznosu od 400 kesa
*****
Za vodju pokreta izabran je Husein-kapetan Gradascevic. Kako Porta nije bila za ustupke, bosanski su se prvaci odlucili na oruzanu borbu. Vecina ajana i kapetana priznala je Husein-kapetana za svog vodu. Izuzetak je stolacki kapetan Ali-pasa Rizvanbegovic. Gradascevic je trazio da se u Bosni ne mijenja poredak, da se Srbima ne ustupaju nahije preko Drine, da se zastite muslimani u Srbiji, da se zastiti sirotinja i kmetovi u Bosni, te da se namjesnik u Bosanskom Ejaletu bira iz redova domacih ljudi. Husein-kapetan ("Zmaj od Bosne") kada je vidio da Porta ne vodi iskrenu politiku zatrazio je da Bosna postane nasljedna knezevina kao sto je Srbija bila pod Milosem. Sultan ovaj zahtjev nije prihvatio. Pod pritiskom sultanove vojske bosanska je vojska porazena u okolini Sarajeva 1832. godine.
Otpor reformama Porte je nastavljen, a na putu slamanja tog otpora 1850. godine u Bosnu je sa velikom vojskom poslat Omer-pasa Latas, porijeklom Srbin iz Bosne. U tim borbama izginulo je oko 2 500 Bosnjaka. Dugogodisnji otpor je bio slomljen i time je sahranjeno nastojanje Bosnjaka da za svoju pokrajinu osiguraju autonomiju. Bosnom su zavladali stranci koji su svoj polozaj shvatili kao izvor bogacenja. U ratu sa Rusijom Porta je bila prisiljena prihvatiti nepovoljan San Stefanski mir u martu 1878. godine. Po njemu je bilo predvideno stvaranje 3 nove drzave na Balkanu: Velika Bugarska, Crna Gora i prosirena Srbija. Za BiH je bila predvidena autonomija u okviru Osmanskog Carstva. Nezadovoljne jacanjem Rusije evropske zemlje su trazile reviziju ovog ugovora, koja je izvrsena u ljeto 1878.godine. Na njemu su Srbija i Crna Gora dobile medunarodno priznanje, teritorijalno prosirenje i obavezu da priznaju ravnopravnost nesrpskim narodima.
*****
Austro-Ugarska je clanom XXV Berlinskog ugovora dobila medjunarodni mandat da "okupira i upravlja BiH". U julu 1878.godine u Sarajevu je doslo do masovnih demonstracija, poslije kojih je izabrana narodna vlada. Narodu je podijeljeno oruzje, a funkcioneri Osmanske vlasti napustili su Bosnu. Tako je nakon 400 godina prestala Osmanska vlast u BiH. U otporu je ucestvovao jedan broj Srba i Hrvata, dok su Jevreji otpor pomogli novcem, konacno je aneksija BiH izvrsena 1908. godine. Iako je Prvi svjetski rat imao svoje prave uzroke i razloge izrazene u suprotnostima izmedu dva velika bloka velikih sila, ubistvo Franca Ferdinanda 28.VI.1914. godine ubrzalo je njegovo izbijanje. Vlada Kraljevine Srbije optuzena je za atentat, predat joj je ultimatum od 10 tacaka koji je ona sav prihvatila osim posljednjeg da austrougarski organi neposredno ucestvuju u istrazi atentata na teritoriji Srbije. Tako je krajem jula 1914. godine izbio Prvi svjetski rat. Slomom Srbije i Crne Gore 1915. godine BiH je prestala biti neposrednim ratnim popristem, ali su brojni Bosanci i Hercegovci i dalje mobilizirani u austrougarsku vojsku, u kojoj su ginuli i stradali na dalekim frontovima, uglavnom na ruskom i talijanskom.
*****
Prvog decembra 1918. godine proglasena je kraljevina SHS. Tako je BiH kao dio drzave Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba usla u sastav nove jugoslovenske drzave. Nalazeci se u kraljevini SHS BiH nije izgubila svoju drzavnost. Zemaljska vlada za BiH imala je 5 povjerenistava, a u prvu vladu Kraljevine SHS usla su i 3 iz BiH po nacionalnom i vjerskom kljucu. Jedna od karakteristika novostvorene jugoslovenske drzave cinilo je progonjenje i nasilje nad Bosancima u BiH i Sandzaku.Tako je do septembra 1920. godine pored ostalih oblika nasilja ubijeno oko 2 000 Bosnjaka. U pogranicnim krajevima Crne Gore ubijeno je 126 bosnjackih seljaka. Zapaljeno je 500 bosnjackih seoskih zadruga. Samo do jula 1919. godine od 4 218 bosnjackih zemljovlasnika oduzeto je bez ikakve nadoknade 400.072 hektara njihove vlastite zemlje.
Po Vidovdanskom ustavu od 28. juna 1921. godine odredjeno je jednim clanom da BiH ostane u svojim sadasnjim granicama, cime joj je zagarantovana teritorijalna cjelovitost. U augustu 1939. godine sporazumom Cvetkovic-Macek formirana je Banovina Hrvatska na stetu BiH, a posebno Bosnjaka.
*****
U sastav Banovine Hrvatske uslo je 13 kotara iz BiH. Time je izvrsena podjela BiH i potpuno cijepanje njenog povijesnog tkiva. Do realizacije ovog sporazuma nije doslo jer izbija II svjetski rat. Tadasnje muslimansko politicko vodstvo obnovilo je u tim prilikama ideju o autonomiji BiH. Preko svojih predstavnika sva muslimanska drustva i organizacije zahtijevali su da se uspostavi BiH kao posebna jedinica. Protiv ove ideje odlucno su istupili srpski politicari koji su zastupali ideju o srpskoj politickoj prevlasti u BiH. Linija podjele interesnog podrucja Njemacke i Italije isla je preko BiH. Tokom II svjetskog rata cetnici Draze Mihajlovica u tri su navrata izvrsili masovne pokolje nad bosnjackim stanovnistvom u istocnoj Hercegovini, zapadnoj Bosni i u dijelovima Sandzaka. Sa svoje strane Bosnjaci su se otvoreno ogradili od ustaske politike progona i istrebljenje Srba i Jevreja obnavljajuci rezolucije u kojima su osudivani ustaski zlocini. Islamska zajednica takodjer se ogradila od onih Bosnjaka koji su suradjivali sa ustaskim vlastima.
*****
Kao sredisnja jugoslovenska drzava BiH je bila tokom najveceg dijela rata centar NOB-e.
Ustav FNRJ izglasan je 31.01.1946. godine. U njemu se Bosnjaci ne spominju kao nacija.
Sedamdesetih godina konacno je doslo do nacionalnog priznavanja Bosnjaka pod imenom Muslimani.
Poslije Titove smrti 1980. godine se otvoreno trazi ukidanje Ustava iz 1974. godine kojim je omogucena veca samostalnost republika.
Tokom 1989. godine dolazi do krize presjednistva SFRJ uz istovremeno isticanje Generalstaba JNA kao vrhovne komande oruzanih snaga SFRJ s ovlascenjima samostalnog donosenja odluka. Time je u Jugoslaviji izvrsen prikriveni drzavni udar.
Nakon osamostaljenja Slovenije i Hrvatske na referendumu odrzanog februara 1992. godine i gradjani BiH izjasnili su se za samostalnu, neovisnu i suverenu drzavu. To je posluzilo kao povod za srpsko-crnogorsku agresiju 06.04.1992. godine.
Evropska zajednica priznala je novo stanje u BiH, koja je 21.05.1992. godine primljena u UN.
Krvavom i tuznom istinom i mi smo "prvaci" te istorije na kraju 20. stoljeca!!
Sudbinu punu neizvjesnosti svi, ama bas svi, nosimo na svojim plecima.
Pri kreiranju "Historije BiH" koristene knjige ministarstva obrazovanja, nauke, kulture i sporta BiH.

History of the Bosniak people from their pre-Slavic roots to the present day

Bosniaks: Encyclopedia II - Bosniaks - History
Bosniaks - History
Bosniaks - Pre-Slavic roots
The earliest well known inhabitants of the area now known as Bosnia and Herzegovina were the Illyrians. This ancient Indo-European people presumably arrived in the west Balkans around 2000 BC, overrunning the various old European cultures who lived there before them (such as the Butmir Culture in the vicinity of modern Sarajevo). Despite the arrival of the Celts in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, the Illyrians remained the dominant group in the west Balkans until the arrival of the Romans.
Rome conquered Illyria after a series of wars, the final being the crushing of a rebellion by certain tribes in what is now central Bosnia around 9 CE. Latin-speaking settlers from all over the empire settled among the Illyrians at this time. The Roman province of Dalmatia included Herzegovina and most of Bosnia, and a strip of northern Bosnia, south of the Sava River, was part of the province of Pannonia. The Vlachs, a historically nomadic people who live throughout the Balkans, speak a language derived from Latin, and are thought to be the descendants of Roman settlers and Romanized indigenous peoples. No longer present in a large number, they were absorbed into Bosnia’s three main ethnic groups based on religion during the Ottoman period.
It should be noted that Bosniaks, unlike other people whose land is named after an ancient ethnic name, derive their name from Bosnia (similar to Italians and Spaniards). The most commonly accepted theory regarding the origins of the name Bosnia is that it comes from the river Bosna, which has had a similar name since ancient times. That word itself is of either Latin or Illyrian origin.
The Goths conquered Roman Dalmatia in the fifth century, and later the Alans, who spoke an Iranian language, and the Turkic Huns and Avars passed through what is now Bosnia. These invaders left few linguistic traces, and whatever remnant populations were left behind were absorbed by the Slavic wave that was to follow.
In 2005 various South European medical schools and institutions specializing in genetics did an analysis of the variation at 28 Y-chromosome biaUelic markers among a sample of males from throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, relatively equally split among all three major ethnic groups. The most notable find was the high frequency of the “Paleolithic European” halo group (Hg) I; specifically its sub-halo group I-P37. Indicative of Dinarics, the sub-halo group had a frequency of 71% among Bosnian Croats, 44% among Bosniaks, and 31% among Bosnian Serbs. A similar study in Croatia found that Croatian Croats had a frequency of about 45%, but that among them Croats in Dalmatia had a particularly high frequency (around two thirds).
The high frequency of I-P37 among Croats in Bosnia and Dalmatia can be explained by the fact that Catholics in those regions historically mixed very little with other people. The smaller frequency among Croats in Croatia and Bosniaks is probably due to the various foreigners that were assimilated over the years. The study mentioned above confirmed that the Bosniak gene pool was impacted by foreigners from various regions in the Ottoman Empire more so than that of the other two groups, but not in a significant amount overall.
It must be taken into account that out of the study’s Bosniak subjects none came from Bosanska Krajina. Based on historical factors associated with the region, it could be expected that the inclusion of Bosniak subjects from this regions would have raised the frequency of I-P37 and Slav-associated sub-halo groups while lowering the frequency of Mediterranean related sub-halo groups among Bosniaks overall. Future genetic studies will hopefully shed more light on these issues. As it stands, current studies have shown that, genetically, Bosniaks are largely indigenous and have a large fraction of the ancient gene pool distinctive for the Balkan area.
Bosniaks - Medieval Bosnia
Slavs settled in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and the surrounding lands, which were then part of the Eastern Roman Empire, in the seventh century. The Slavic Serbs and Croats settled sometime after the first wave of Slavs. The Croats established a kingdom in what is now central Croatia and northwestern Bosnia. The Serbs settled in what is now central Serbia, and later expanding into the upper Drina valley of eastern Bosnia and into Eastern Herzegovina, known in the later Middle Ages as Zahumlje. The Croats to the west came under the influence of the Germanic Carolingian Empire and the Roman Catholic Church, and Croatia was closely tied to Hungary and later Austria until the twentieth century. The Serbs to the east came under periodic Byzantine rule, converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity and absorbed Byzantine cultural influences. After some centuries of rule by Croatia, Serb principalities, and the Byzantine Empire, an independent Bosnian kingdom flourished in central Bosnia between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries.
The subject of ethnicity in medieval Bosnia has been one of great debate ever since it was brought up in its current context by historians during the second half of the 19th century. All three ethnic groups in Bosnia have a different view on the matter, and this complex and sensitive subject has been further obscured by nationalism and propaganda through the ages. Proving their people as the true heirs of the medieval Bosnian state is important to many nationalists because they consider this indigenousness to have important implications in modern social, political, and interethnic issues. Simply put, however, there is no sign that the population of pre-Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina, in whichever social stratum, had developed Croatian or Serbian ethnic consciousness even in a medieval sense of the word. To quote Noel Malcolm from the book “Bosnia A Short History”:
“As for the question of whether the inhabitants of Bosnia were really Croat or really Serb in 1180, it cannot be answered, for two reasons: first, because we lack evidence, and secondly, because the question lacks meaning. We can say that the majority of the Bosnian territory was probably occupied by Croats - or at least, by Slavs under Croat rule - in the seventh century; but that is a tribal label which has little or no meaning five centuries later. The Bosnians were generally closer to the Croats in their religious and political history; but to apply the modern notion of Croat identity (something constructed in recent centuries out of religion, history, and language) to anyone in this period would be an anachronism. All that one can sensibly say about the ethnic identity of the Bosnians is this: they were the Slavs who lived in Bosnia.”
The Bosnian Kingdom blended cultural influences from east and west; although nominally Roman Catholic, the Bosnian kings embraced elements of Byzantine culture and court ceremonial, and formed alliances and dynastic marriages with the neighboring rulers of both Croatian-Dalmatian and Serb states. Because of Bosnia’s mountainous and inaccessible terrain and its remote location on the borderland between the Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, control by church authorities was weak. The religious situation was also peculiar because of the presence of an indigenous Bosnian Church (its adherents were known as krštjani, “Christians”). The krštjani were considered heretics by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. Modern historians have debated whether the Krštjani were a branch of the Bogomils, a Manichean sect which originated in Bulgaria, or whether they were members of the Catholic Church who had acquired some heretical beliefs and influences from Eastern Orthodoxy and fell into Schism.
At its largest extent, under King Tvrtko Kotromanic, the Bosnian Kingdom included most of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the exception of north-western Bosnia, as well as parts of Dalmatia and western Serbia. Discord among his heirs weakened the kingdom after his death, and Bosnia and the Serb principalities to the east were unable to prevent Ottoman Turkish incursions into the western Balkans. The final Turkish conquest in 1463 marked the end of an independent Bosnia and the beginning of the influence of a third civilization, Islam.
Bosniaks - Ottoman rule
Historians have long debated how and why the Slav population in Bosnia converted in such large numbers to Islam. There is no simple answer to this question, and the underlying reasons are complex and numerous. One important fact is that the Ottomans did not, as a rule, actively seek to convert their Christian subjects to Islam (the many generations it took for Bosnia to become predominantly Muslim and the retaining of Slavic customs among converts testify to this). The Ottoman Empire at the time was centered on militaristic expansion independent of religion, and the primary split was not between Muslims and nonbelievers but between the military-administrative class (the Ottomans) and the raya, neither of which was exclusive to any particular faith. Though the state eventually acquired a more Islamic focus, by the time this happened Muslims already made up a large majority of Bosnia’s population.
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia was notable because, unlike all other European regions that came under Ottoman control, Bosnia retained its status as a distinct entity from the very beginning (first as a Sanjak, then as a pashaluk). The Ottomans imported their feudal system to Bosnia shortly after the take-over, and estates were granted to men, called spahis, in return for military service in times of war. At the beginning of the Ottoman period, these estates were usually, but not exclusively, granted to Muslims, and later only to Muslims. In Bosnia, these land grants gradually became hereditary, and by the end of the Ottoman period, a majority of the landowners in Bosnia were Muslims, and most Christians were peasants or serfs (raya).
Probably the biggest reason behind the spread of Islam in the region was the very weak presence of the Church in Bosnia at the time. The old competition between the Catholic and Bosnian churches (along with the Orthodox Church in certain areas) contributed to a very weak and disorganized religious structure in much of Bosnia. To many Bosnians religion was a combination of traditions and superstitions. Compared to the well-funded and organized religious institutions of their neighbors, it was relatively easy for Bosnians to switch from their folk-Christianity to Islam. It is significant that the only other European region under Ottoman control where a large segment of the population adopted Islam was Albania; also home to competing Christian sects.
Also important was the growth of urban centers, the vast majority of which were Muslim. Cities that were founded at the time, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, grew rapidly with a specifically Islamic character and advanced living standards. It is understandable that many Christians in the outlying rural regions would convert to Islam to be part of the superior conditions in such places. Further, slaves who converted to Islam could petition for their freedom, and many of the Christians enslaved during the wars with Austria, Hungary, and Venice converted to Islam in order to secure their release. Many of these newly-freed converts settled in the growing cities, further contributing to their growth and development.
It is thought that the greater rights afforded to Muslims in the Ottoman Empire motivated Christians to convert to Islam. However, the extent to which Muslims were privileged is often overestimated. The primary discrimination faced by non-Muslims was of a legal nature, as Christians and Jews were not allowed to file lawsuits or testify against Muslims in court. There were also rules of conduct imposed upon them, but there were many to whom these rules did not apply. Though much has been made of the fact that Christian and Jewish subjects of the Sultan paid a ‘poll tax’ from which Muslims were exempt, Muslims were also faced with the religious zekjat tax, whereas Catholics made donations to their church only on a voluntary basis.
Many Christians became Muslims through the devsirme system, whereby boys were gathered from the Ottoman lands and were sent to Istanbul to convert to Islam and be trained as Janissary troops, servants of the Sultan or Ottoman officials. One observer in the 16th century even mentioned that the Sultan believed Bosniaks were “the best, most pious and most loyal people” and “much bigger, more handsome, and more able” than other Muslim peoples. Though the devsirme system probably didn’t influence the demographics of Bosnia significantly, it did firmly establish the Slavic element and language in Istanbul’s administration and provided Bosnia with local Bosniak governors from 1488 onward.
The 17th century brought major defeats and military setbacks on the Ottoman Empire’s western frontier. With major wars occurring every few decades, Bosnia was economically and militarily exhausted. For Bosnia and Bosniaks, the most critical conflict of all was the Great Turkish War. At its very start n the mid 1680s, the Austrians conquered nearly all of Ottoman Hungary, sending tens of thousands of Muslim refugees flooding into Bosnia. A similar process occurred with the Austrian conquest of Lika and Slavonia. Thousands of Muslims from these parts fled eastward into the Bosnian pashaluk, while those who remained were forcibly converted to Catholicism. In total, it is estimated that more than 100,000 Muslims were expelled from the frontier regions and settled in Bosnia during this time. Many brought with them a new sense of hostility towards Christianity.
Ottoman military disasters continued into the next decade. In 1697, Prince Eugene of Savoy conducted an extremely successful border raid which culminated in Sarajevo being put to the torch. The Great Turkish War was finally ended by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. However, in the late 1710s yet another war between the Ottomans and the Austro-Venitian alliance ensued. It was ended by the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, but not before sending another wave of Muslim refugees fleeing to Bosnia proper.
These events created great unrest among Bosniaks. The sentiment of discontent was further magnified by war and an increased tax burden. As a result, Bosniak revolts sprang up in Herzegovina in 1727, 1728, 1729, and 1732. A large plague that resulted in the death of thousands during the early 1730s contributed to the general chaos. In 1736, seeking to exploit these conditions, Austria broke the Treat of Passarowitz and crossed the Sava river boundary. In one of the most significant events in Bosniak history, local Bosniak nobility organized a defense and counterattack completely independent of the ineffective imperial authorities. On August 4, at the Battle of Banja Luka, the outnumbered Bosniak forces routed the Austrian army and sent them fleeing back to Slavonia.
Traditionally, the Turkish authorities classed subjects of the Empire not by nationality, but by religion. During the nineteenth century, modern national consciousness began to increase among the south Slavs; some historians now believe that it was in this period that Catholic Bosnians increasingly began to think of themselves as Croats, and Orthodox Bosnians as Serbs. The beginnings of a Muslim Bosnian national consciousness is also first attested in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as these early Bosniak nationalists began to assert a national identity distinct from both their Orthodox and Catholic neighbors, and from the other Muslim inhabitants of the empire. Most Serb and Croat nationalists tend to deny a separate Bosniak national identity, claiming that Bosniaks were either Serb or Croat in origin, but of Islamic religion. This debate, whether Bosnia and the Bosniaks are “really” Croats, Serbs, or a separate Bosniak Bosnian nation, has energized debates among nationalists until the present day. Anthropologists find the nationalist statements on Serbian/Croatian origin rather irrational and ultimately undignified attention, since, with a few notable exceptions, the ethnicity and history of the dominated in communist Yugoslavia has been prescribed by the dominators and by the general demographics of a region.
Like national identity in Bosnia and Herzegovina in general, Bosniak national identity is chiefly based on religion and communal feeling, as opposed to linguistic and/or physical differences from their neighbors. In that sense, the earliest foundation of modern Bosniak national development can be found as early as the beginning of the 18th century, as native Bosnian Muslims found themselves often fighting against the empire’s enemies by their own (i.e. the Battle of Banja Luka, where the city’s garrison was composed entirely of Bosniaks). On top of present cultural uniqueness, by the first half of the 19th century upper class Bosniaks and intellectuals were already propagating what can be considered early Bosniak nationalism, by way of writing and politics, all of which would later lead to the Bosniak rebirth at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.
Bosniaks - Austro-Hungarian rule and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Bosnia and Herzegovina were occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary in 1878, and a number of Bosniaks left Bosnia and Herzegovina. Official Austro-Hungarian records show that 56,000 people mostly Bosniaks emigrated between 1883 and 1920, but the number of Bosniak emigrants is probably much larger, as the official record doesn’t reflect emigration before 1883, nor include those who left without permits. Most of the emigrants probably fled in fear of retribution after the intercommunal violence of the 1875-1878 uprising. Many Serbs from Herzegovina left for America during the same period. One geographer estimates that there are 350,000 “Bosniaks” in Turkey today, although that figure includes the descendants of Muslim South Slavs who emigrated from the Sandžak region during the First Balkan War and later. Another wave of Bosniak emigration occurred after the end of the First World War, when Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, known after 1929 as Yugoslavia.
Urban Bosniaks were particularly proud of their cosmopolitan culture, especially in the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, which was, until WWII, home to thriving Bosniak, Serb, Croat, and Jewish communities. After 1945, Sarajevo became one of the most ethnically mixed cities in the former Yugoslavia.
Bosniaks - The struggle for recognition
Members of the 19th century Illyrian movement, most notably Ivan Frano Jukić, emphasized Bosniaks (Bošnjaci) alongside Serbs and Croats as one of the “tribes” that constitutes the “Illyrian nation”.
With the dawn of Illyrian movement, Muslim intelligentsia gathered around magazine Bosnia in the 1860s promoted the idea of a Bosniak nation. A member of this group was father of Savfet-beg Bašagić, a famous Bosniak poet. The Bosniak group would remain active for several decades, with the continuity of ideas and the use of the archaic Bosniak name. From 1891 until 1910 they published a magazine titled Bosniak. By the turn of centuries, however, this group has all but died out, due to its most prominent members either dying or deciding for Croat identity, the latter including Savfet-beg Bašagić himself.
The administration of Benjamin Kallay, the Austria-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, enforced the idea of a unitary Bosnian nation (Bosanci) that would include the Catholic and Orthodox Bosnians as well as Muslims. The idea was fiercely opposed by Croats and Serbs, but also by a number of Muslims. This policy further clouded the Bosnian ethnical issue and made the Bosniak group seem as pro-regime. After Kallays death in 1903, the official policy slowly drifted towards accepting the three-ethnical reality of Bosnia.
Muslim National Organization (MNO), a political party founded in 1906, was a major opponent of the regime and promoted the idea of Muslims as a separate entity from Serbs and Croats. A group of dissidents that, among else, subscribed with the Croat Muslim identity formed a party named Muslim Proggressive Party (MNS), however it received little popular support and faded away in the next few years.
The first constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1910 explicitly mentioned Serbs, Croats and Muslims as the “native peoples”. This was reflected in the elections held soon thereafter, when the electoral was divided into a Serb, Croat and Muslim ballot. MNO, Serb National Organization (SNO) and Croat National Community (HNZ) received almost unanimous support in their respective ballots, and their members formed the parliament, albeit this parliament had little power in the Austria-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina. All translations of the Constitution into native languages used lower-case M for Muslims as followers of Islam (This is because the proper nouns such as Muslim and Christian were and still are written in lowercase letters in Bosnian (Serbo-Croatian) language).
After the World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes which later transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Serb monarchy, being one of the victors of the World War, sought Croat and Slovene political parties as their partners when forming the country. MNO, reformed into the Yugoslav Muslim Organization (JMO), dropped the pursuit of Muslim national identity and focused on protecting the religious and existential issues of Muslims through coalescing with other parties, sometimes even with the Serbian parties such as Nikola Pašić’s People’s Radical Party and Milan Stojadinović’s Serbian Radical Party.
In the 1921 census, only Serbs, Croats and Slovenes were recognized as native nations or “tribes”, and these were the only available options for ethnicity. The result was that a large number of Bosniaks simply left the field for ethnicity blank. This phenomenon, labeled nonethnical element (nenarodni element), was a topic of heated debate amongst scholars and politicians for years to follow. Some of them argued that the nonethnical element were descendants of the Turkish occupier and as such should be expelled. Nevertheless, thanks to the helpful influence of JMO, there were only isolated incidents of oppression against Bosniaks.
This political void was quickly filled with a number of opposition parties which recognized Muslims as a separate nation. Among them was the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, as a document from the 1930s reveals. It’s no coincidence that a large number of Bosnian Muslims joined the Communist Party, and later the partisans, many of them becaming prominent political leaders and commandants.
During the World War II, the authorities of the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia tried to ally with the Bosniaks whom they considered to be “Muslim Croats” against the Serbs and other “undesirables”. As a token, the Artists Gallery museum (by Ivan Mestrovic) in Zagreb was furnished with minarets and ceded to be used as a mosque.
The Declaration of the State Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ZAVNOBiH), issued on November 25th of 1943 by the partisan government, is widely considered to be the constitutional basis of the modern Bosnia and Herzegovina. This document uses essentially the same wording as the 1910 Constitution. Furthermore, the Resolution of ZAVNOBiH states: “Today, the nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina, through their only political representative - the ZAVNOBiH, desire that their country, which is neither Serb, nor Croat nor Muslim, but Serb as well as Croat and Muslim, should be the free and united Bosnia and Herzegovina in which the full equality, legal and otherwise, of Serbs, Muslims and Croats will be guaranteed”.
Unfortunately, this declaration was broken as soon as World War II was over, as the Constitution of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) mentioned Serbs and Croats, but not Muslims, as the native nations (narodi). In the Yugoslav census of 1948, 90% of Muslims in Yugoslavia declared themselves as “nationally undetermined”. Furthermore, many who registered as Serbs or Croats did so largely out of societal and economic pressure. When the “Yugoslav, nationally undeclared” option became available in 1953, 900,000 people registered as such.
With a weakening of Serb dominance in Bosnian communist leadership, the door opened up for a new national identification. Finally in the 1961 Yugoslav census, the “Muslims in the ethnic sense” option first appeared. By 1963 Muslims were listed in the Bosnian constitution alongside Serbs and Croats. Finally, in 1968, “Muslims” with a capital M was adopted as the term for a member of a nation rather than “muslims” as adherents to Islam. (This summons forth the old discussions about whether a Jew is a member of a tribe or of a religion; the dilemmas were parallel).
The decision wasn’t greeted without debate among communist leadership, but Bosniaks had made themselves clear. “Practice has shown the harm of different forms of pressure,” read a communique issued by the Bosnian Central Committee, “from the earlier period when Muslims were designated as Serbs or Croats from the national viewpoint. It has been shown, and present socialist practice confirms, that the Muslims are a distinct nation”.
From then until the Yugoslav wars, Bosniak national identity continued to develop with two different philosophies forming. These breakthroughs in the 60s were not carried out by religious Muslims (in fact, they were headed chiefly by secular Muslim communists) but in the following decades two separate schools of thought emerged. The first, was a secular “Muslim Nationalism”, and the second was a separate revival of Islamic religious belief (a reaction to communist sponsored secularism and advocated by people such as Alija Izetbegović). The effects of these two separate ideas on what exactly Bosnian Muslims are can be seen to this day.
In September 1993, the Congress of Bosnian Muslim Intellectuals adopted the term Bosniak instead of the previously used Muslim. Other nationalities objected to the name as a ploy to monopolize the history of Bosnia and make them seem to be foreign invaders (see History of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The term in itself means Bosnian and is an archaic term that was once used for all inhabitants of Bosnia regardless of faith. Bosniaks counter by pointing out that Bosniak has been a historical ethnic term for their nation since the 19th century, and that had they truly wanted to “monopolize” Bosnian history it would have been far easier to adopt the name “Bosnian” in itself instead of using the more archaic version.
Since the 1990s, the name has been adopted outside of Bosnia itself, onto the Slavic Muslim population of other former Yugoslav republics such as Serbia and Macedonia. It allows a Bosniak/Bosnian distinction to match the Serb/Serbian and Croat/Croatian distinctions between ethnicity and residence.

http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Bosniaks_-_History/id/618993